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[SEAOC] Quartering wind

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I have found that quatering wind is usually, (almost always) contorls the
design for the elements that are resisting lateral loads in more than one
directrion, such as shearwalls and frames that are not planar or foundations
that connect such elements.

It gets more intresting in non square building such as rectangular or those
of irregular shape. 

I have designed a lot of high rises in a "Y" shape for maximizing ocean view
with searwalls perpendicular to the "Y" legs in each wind, most often with
diffrent stiffness and diffrent tributary area as well as lower floor
discontinuies. In these cases, taking the normal x and y wind sepearatly is
not even close, since wind some where around a quatering wind will control
and torsion can be a major factor. Fpor this, we do an anlaysis every few
degrees around a circle to determine the criticlal wind direction, which is
not the same for each wall.

The same principles apply for earthquake design.

We have also found that wind tunnel testing of tall, irregualr shaped
building will present a great savings over standard wind design using ASCE-7.

John Pepper
The Pepper Engineering Group, Inc.
20895 East Dixie Highway
Aventura, FL 33180