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References not included in my previous post:

Color change of concrete:  ACI Journal, November, 1963, page 1539: 
"Below 450 F color is normal.  Progressively from 550 F to 1100 F,
pink hue deepens to red.  Between 1100 F and 1650 F color changes back
through grey to buff."

Also at same location in reference, "Quartz pop-out at 1070 R;
Spalling over steel to expose not more than one-quarter of bar: 1450
F; White powder of decomposed cement hydration products: 1650 F;
Surface crazing: approximately 530 F; Deeper cracking: approximately
1000 F."

"In the absence of tests, pink concrete and beyond should be suspect
concrete; 1450 F steel and beyond as suspect steel.  The general
temperature of a wood fire is likely to be about 1000 F and that of
glowing coals about 2000 F."

Also other references:

	ACI SP-92, Evaluation and Repair of Fire Damage to Concrete.

	ACI SP-80, Fire Safety of Concrete Structures.

Hope this helps.

A. Roger Turk, P.E.(Structural)
Tucson, Arizona  

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Richard Lewis, P.E.
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