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Re: z factor for crack control

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My understanding is that during the heyday of "Working Stress"  and  the use
of low yield point steels(i.e., 40 ksi steel), the reinforcement stresses
were low and the resultant low steel and adjacent concrete strains minimized
cracking. With the advent of strength design and the use of higher yield
steels correspondingly increasing, the higher reinforcement and adjacent
concrete stress/strain levels have resulted in greater cracking. Hence, the
requirement('z"factor) to limit crack widths when using  60 ksi or greater

Charlie Canitz, PE
Bel Air, MD