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Re: Hoop stress in pipeline

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>Can anyone define hoop stress in relation to pipelines?
For gas the formula PD/2t same as for any other cylindrical shell. D is 
the ID, t is the wall thickness. With a couple of caveats. The pressure 
doesn't account for external loading due to soil pressure. This formula 
is slightly different than the piping code design formula, although the 
difference isn't terribly significant. 

Normally this relationship is used for liquid with the pressure taken as 
the highest pressure anywhere about the circumference. The pressure 
difference from top to bottom due to gravity head isn't usually 
significant. Just curious--why do you ask?

Christopher Wright P.E.    |"They couldn't hit an elephant from
chrisw(--nospam--at)        | this distance"   (last words of Gen.
___________________________| John Sedgwick, Spotsylvania 1864)