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Mill Certs/Yield Strengt

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One *major* reason for not using mill certs for design/analysis purposes is 
that in any rolled section as it comes from the mill, the steel is already at 
yield in both compression and tension at various places in the rolled shape 
(residual stresses).  When you take a coupon from the shape, the residual 
stresses are released and you are testing a steel specimen in which the 
stresses are entirely different than they are in the source of the specimen.

While we like to think that the stresses in an unloaded steel shape are zero, 
*it ain't so!*

Structural Engineering:  A profession where we start with an assumption and 
proceed *exactly* from there.

A. Roger Turk, P.E.(Structural)
Tucson, Arizona