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RE: Shear Strength of Rivets

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According to Harry Plummer (Brick and Tile Engineering, 1950), ASTM
defined standards for structural clay tile first in 1936 ("hollow burned
clay masonry building units with parallel cells"), but there was
discussion of various proposals starting in 1921, and these products
have been produced since 1875.  Since structural clay tile are
classified as hollow masonry units, by definition they have a net
cross-sectional area in any plane parallel to the bearing surface of
less than 75 percent of the gross cross-sectional area measured in the
same plane.  Plummer refers to ASTM C34 for the minimum cross-sectional
areas associated with structural clay load-bearing wall tile and C56 for
non-load-bearing tile.  The main difference is in the requirements for
load testing of the structural tile for compressive strength, whereby
the non-structural tiles were limited only in the degree of water

You could try shotcreting them (use them as a form for new R/C walls).
Might be more trouble than it's worth.

Regarding rivets, an old (1898) Pencoyd manual on steel construction
that I have referred to in the past provides three different tables
based on three (count 'em) stresses: 12, 15, and 22 ksi, 22 being the
value used for the "Pencoyd specifications".  The area of a 3/4 inch
rivet is given as .4418 sq. inches.  At 22 ksi they give the following

1/4 plate: 4130 lbs
5/16 plate: 5160 lbs
3/8 plate: 6190 lbs
7/16 plate: 7220 lbs
1/2 plate: 8250 lbs
9/16 plate: 9280 lbs
5/8 plate: 10320 lbs
11/16 plate: 11340 lbs
3/4 plate: 12380 lbs

Single shear for the rivet at 11 ksi is given as 4860 lbs.

Another excellent reference for this stuff is Ferris' compilation of
rolled shapes "Iron and Steel Beams".  It covers the period 1873 to 1952
and can be ordered directly from AISC.

Hope this helps.

J. Silva, SE

> ----------
> From: 	wish[SMTP:wish(--nospam--at)]
> Reply To: 	seaoc(--nospam--at)
> Sent: 	Montag, 12. Januar 1998 01:51
> To: 	seaoc(--nospam--at)
> Subject: 	Re: Shear Strength of Rivets
> Bill, there were actually two kinds of hollow clay tiles. One is
> considered
> structural and can be retrofit. The tile with wall thickness less than
> about
> 1/4" is non-structural clay. Structural clay tile has a wall thickness
> around 1/2" or more. This is approximate since I came upon a couple of
> these
> buildings - one in Arcadia and another in Venice. Both were considered
> structural clay tiles.
> Dennis Wish PE
> -----Original Message-----
> From: Bill Cain, S.E. <bcain(--nospam--at)>
> To: seaoc(--nospam--at) <seaoc(--nospam--at)>
> Date: Friday, January 09, 1998 4:38 PM
> Subject: Shear Strength of Rivets
> >I'm evaluating a 1925 industrial type building (formerly a large
> water
> >pumping plant) for a change in occupancy.  The structure has
> reinforced
> >concrete walls (long direction), unreinforced Hollow Clay Tile end
> walls (I
> >know, the HCT has got to go!) with riveted steel roof trusses and
> lateral
> >bracing.
> >
> >Does anyone have a range of values for the shear strength (single
> shear)
> >for 3/4" diameter rivets that might have been used in that era?  The
> oldest
> >information I have is from the '50's with ranges from 17.5 to 22 ksi
> >allowable shear strength.
> >
> >Thanks,
> >
> >
> >_______________
> >
> >_______________
> >
> >
> >