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RE: Seismic acceleration of H2O

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Many years of research was performed by students (including myself) of
Medhat Haroun at UC Irvine on the fluid dynamics and fluid-structure
interaction of tanks subjected to ground motion.  Dr. Haroun was one of
Housner's last PhD students and was the one that work on the Housner

All of the findings were published in either EERI, ASCE Structural Journals
or conference proceedings.  The method was basically a finite element
approach, classic FEM where you tried to model the water mass as a mass
with small or zero stiffness lead to an unstable solution.  This new method
used the pressures generated by the ground motion into an "ADDED" fluid
mass that did not increase the model size.

After the analysis software was generated, we generated many papers with
tables or graphs for the force determination for either circular or
rectangular tanks.  AWWA D-100 was beginning to include some of the work as
it was published.

	Bill Warren, SE
	Newport Beach, CA

27                               Message:0027                           27
From: hsprague(--nospam--at) (Harold Sprague)
To: "'seaoc(--nospam--at)'" <seaoc(--nospam--at)>
Subject: RE: Seismic acceleration of H2O

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You will develop impulsive and convective fluid loads.  The generally =
used standard has traditionally been the Army TM 5-809-10, Chapter 13.  =
There is also a newer methodology that will be referenced in the 1997 =
NEHRP that will use the AWWA D100 methodology, which will be the ACI 350 =
methodology whenever it gets through ACI.

Be careful on the analysis.  If it is circular, it will act as a ring =
and not so much as a cantilever; if it is rectangular it will develop 2 =
way action.  Reference the PCA tank design guide.  The design criteria =
will be predicated on the prevention of leaks and crack size limitation. =
 Look at the ACI 350 for performance requirements.  There are also =
different load factors than used in ACI 318 that must be considered.

Harold Sprague, PE, Office Manager
Krawinkler, Luth & Assoc.
4412 W. Eisenhower Blvd.
Loveland, CO 80537
Voice: 970 667-2426
Fax: 970 667-2493
Email: hsprague(--nospam--at)

-----Original Message-----
From:	STEVE CAMPBELL [SMTP:scampbell(--nospam--at)]
Sent:	Wednesday, February 25, 1998 9:48 PM
To:	seaoc(--nospam--at)
Subject:	Seismic acceleration of H2O

I am evaluating an existing concrete water reservoir tank with =
cantilevered walls and no lid.  What seismic load will be induced on the =
cantilevered walls by the water, assuming the tank is half full?
Assuming the structure is located above grade, what shape does the water =
seismic load diagram take?
Any references?
Steve Campbell, P.E.