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RE: Seismic Fluid Forces in Tanks

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For those interested in seismic acceleration of fluids or if you can't sleep tonight; following are the references for tanks in the 1997 NEHRP. I would be interested in any comments on the Appendix.
Ref. A14-1	American Petroleum Institute (API) Standard, ANSI /API 650-1992, Welded Steel Tanks For Oil Storage, 1988.

Ref. A14-4	American Water Works Association (AWWA)Standard, ANSI/AWWA  D100-96,  AWS D5.2-96,  Welded Steel Tanks For Water Storage, 1996.

Ref. A14-16	American Water Works Association (AWWA) Standard,  ANSI/AWWA  D110-95, Wire-and Strand-Wound Circular Prestressed Concrete Water Tanks, 1995.

Ref A14-28	American Petroleum Institute (API) Standard, ANSI/API 620-1992 - Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low Pressure Storage Tanks.

Ref A14-29	American Water Works Association (AWWA) Standard ANSI/AWWA D103-97, (Tentative) Factory-Coated Bolted Steel Tanks for Water Storage, 1996.

Ref A14-30	American Water Works Association (AWWA) Standard, ANSI/AWWA D115-95, Circular Prestressed Concrete Tanks With Circumferential Tendons, 1995.

Ref A14-32	National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard, ANSI/NFPA 58-1995, Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gas.

Ref A14-33	National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard, ANSI/NFPA  59-1995, Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases at Utility Gas Plants .

Ref A14-34	National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard, ANSI/NFPA 59A-1994, Production, Storage and Handling of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG).

Ref A14-36	National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard, ANSI/NFPA  30-1993, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, 1993.

Ref A14-45	American Petroleum Institute, (API), Standard ANSI/API 2510-1995, "Design and Construction of Liquefied Petroleum Gas Installation", Seventh Edition, May 1995..

Ref A14-46	American National Standards Institute,  (ANSI), ANSI K61.1, "Safety Requirements for the Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia".


Ref. A14-10	American Concrete Institute (ACI), ACI 350-96, (Tentative) Environmental Concrete Engineering Structures, 1996.


Ref A14-35	U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Pipeline Safety Regulations, Title 49CFR Part 193.

Ref A14-38	American Society of Civil Engineers, (ASCE), Guidelines for the Seismic Design of Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems, New York, NY, 1991.

Ref A14-44	American Petroleum Institute, (API), 2508, "Design and Construction of Ethane and Ethylene Installations at Marine and Pipeline Terminals, Natural Gas Processing Plants, Refineries, Petrochemical Plants and Tank Farms", Second Edition, November 1995.

Ref. A14-11	Army TM 5-809-10, Navy NAVFAC P-355, Air Force AFM 88-3, Chapter 13, Seismic Design for Buildings, 1992 

Ref A14-39	American Society of Civil Engineers, (ASCE) Petrochemical Energy Committee Task Committee on Seismic Evaluation and Design of Petrochemical Facilities, Guidelines for Seismic Evaluation and Design of Petrochemical Facilities, New York, NY.

Ref A14-40	Wozniak, R. S. and Mitchell, W. W, "Basis of Seismic Design Provisions for Welded Steel Oil Storage Tanks",  1978 Proceedings -- Refining Dept, Vol 57, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C.,May 9, 1978

Ref A14-41	Zick, L.P., "Stresses in Large Horizontal Cylindrical Pressure Vessels on Two Saddle Supports", Steel Plate Engineering Data, Vol 1and2, American Iron and Steel Institute, Dec 1992.

Ref A14-43	Housner, G.W. "Earthquake Pressures in Fluid Containers", California Institute of Technology (1954).

I do have some additional references :
* "Base Uplifting Analysis of Flexibly Supported Liquid-Storage Tanks" by Praveen Malhotra, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Vol 24, 1591-1607 (1995)
* "Seismic Design and Evaluation Guidelines for the DOE High-Level Waste Storage Tanks and Appurtenances", by Bandyopadhyay, Cornell, Costantino, Kennedy, Miller, & Veletsos
* "Seismic Response of Unanchored and Partially Anchored Liquid-Storage Tanks", EPRI TR-105809, Dec. 1995.

Harold Sprague
Krawinkler, Luth & Assoc.
4412 W. Eisenhower Blvd.
Loveland, CO 80537
Voice: 970 667-2426
Fax: 970 667-2493
Email: hsprague(--nospam--at)klaalov.com


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