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RE: Tornadoes

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This is very similar to the Enhanced Tornado Protection Areas (ETPA) proposed several years ago for schools.  Texas Tech was also involved in the recommendations for ETPA's.  One of the primary concerns aside from the obvious direct wind pressures was wind borne missile impact.

Again, very few engineers design or recommend ETPA's because the code does not require them.  That is unfortunate:
1. Because the wind provisions of the code are not as developed as the seismic sections.
2. Many engineers only design what is code mandated.

Harold Sprague
Krawinkler, Luth & Assoc.

-----Original Message-----
From:	James Cohen [SMTP:JCCPC(--nospam--at)]
Sent:	Saturday, April 18, 1998 9:30 PM
To:	seaoc(--nospam--at)
Subject:	RE: Tornadoes

For interest, there is research currently underway, funded by FEMA, to develop 
in-residence tornado resistant shelters. These would be suitable for any 
residence subject to hurricane strength winds, but would not, however, be 
intended for coastal structures subject to flooding. The work is being done 
through Greenhorne & O'Mara with the basic R&D subcontracted to Texas Tech 
University. The first report, with design recommendations, is due to be 
published during this summer. Due to the recent disasters, I also understand 
that a conference (limited attendance) has been convened for this week in 
Atlanta, Georgia to discuss mitigation and response to tornadoes. If anyone 
would like further information, please E-mail me at James.Cohen(--nospam--at) 

As part of the PIM (Partners in Mitigation) fellowship, I am assisting in 
review of the designs and report. The PIM Fellow also includes development of 
prioritized recommendations for future wind engineering research. Input from 
this listserve is welcomed. Please direct any suggestions to both the FEMA and 
private E-mail, given below.

James Cohen, PE
PIM (Partners in Mitigation) Fellow, FEMA
c/o James Cohen Consulting, P.C.
PO Box 130
Pennington, New Jersey 08534
Tel: 609-730-0510
Fax: 609-730-0511
E-mail: jccpc(--nospam--at)