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Re: LRFD, ASD, and USD

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     I would say so especially in terms of economics and volume of concrete 
     poured.
       
     USD has allowed a more ductile design as a result of letting the steel     
     yield first. This has allowed the designer to reduce sizes of concrete     
     sections. In WSD the factor for f'c is half of the beta for USD. These     
     translates to almost twice a section to that derived from USD.

     Here in my country, there are still plenty of buildings designed and       
     erected between 1900 to 1965 with WSD. The same building when designed     
     today in USD would probably cost less (that is if the value of money of    
     yesteryears and now is the same).

     Yes, USD has made a difference. 

     Jerome

______________________________ Reply Separator _________________________________
Subject: LRFD, ASD, and USD
Author:  MIME7:CarlS95(--nospam--at)aol.com at INTERNET
Date:    7/28/98 4:25 AM


Christopher Wright wrote (concerning the distinction between LRFD and ASD):
     
<< It seems like a distinction without a difference.  >>
     
Good quote.  I'm going to save this one.  
     
Would you say the same about Ultimate Strength Design for concrete?  We have 
three decades of experience to go on.  So, here's Question No. 1:  Has 
Ultimate Strength Design made a difference?
     
Thanks.
     
Carl S.