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Re: LRFD, ASD, and USD

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Concrete design has *always* intended for reinforcing to yield first.  In WSD 
the criteria was to have the section "under reinforced," i.e., the moment 
capacity based on allowable steel stress always being less than the moment 
capacity based on allowable concrete stress.  If the section was "over 
reinforced," there were criteria for that so that the possibility of a sudden 
explosive compression failure of the concrete would be avoided.

With *any* structure of any material, it should deflect/deform like a 
sway-back mule before it fails so that people would be afraid to use/enter it.

A. Roger Turk, P.E.(Structural)
Tucson, Arizona

jerome.tan wrote:

. >      I would say so especially in terms of economics and volume of 
. > concrete      poured.
. >        
. >      USD has allowed a more ductile design as a result of letting the 
. > steel    
. >      yield first.
. >