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RE: Terracotta Behaviour

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Be careful with this one. There is a difference between structural and
non-structural clay tile. If the wall thickness is greater than 1/4" you
probably are dealing with a structural tile. If less, the Terracotta was
never intended to be a structural element.
In any case, where I have had to deal with a structural Terracotta, I had to
perform shear and tension tests on the walls to determine the allowable
strengths used for retrofit anchors. If the cavities are hollow (and most
are), I took a terrific hit.
In my case it was a 6" wall - one story in Venice area. There are not too
many of these in Los Angeles. I had MEC labs from Glendale do the testing
with a Covert Anchor system.
One other thing to be on the lookout for. In some of the buildings I have
seen, the interior surface is furred out with stud framing. The studs were
actually load bearing from the roof and the Terracotta was a veneer.
This type of structure does not have to comply to California State URM
requirments, but may still pose a threat to passer-bys. Discuss it with your
building official to determine your retrofit plan.

Hope this is what you were looking for.

Dennis Wish PE

> -----Original Message-----
> From: ITSEKSON SASHA [mailto:itsekson(--nospam--at)]
> Sent: Wednesday, August 12, 1998 2:25 AM
> To: seaint
> Subject: RE: Terracotta Behaviour
>  ----------
> From: 	NRoselund[:nroselund(--nospam--at)]
> Sent: 	Wednesday, August 12, 1998 4:34 AM
> To: 	seaint
> Subject: 	Re: Terracotta Behaviour
> Thor,
> Is the terra cotta you are dealing with hollow clay tile?  the following
> comments are based on the assumption that it is............
> ...................Evaluation and design using the UCBC is
> appropriate (the UCBC even
> says so).  Evaluation of mortar quality by the UCBC procedures
> should be based
> on net mortar-joint  dimensions, not on gross wall thicknesses.
> Testing of
> mortar quality using the procedures of UBC Standard 21-6 requires
> bearing pads
> of steel plates set in gypsum mortar to distribute jack loads so
> that the jack
> doesn't break through the cell walls.  Effective wall anchors can be made
> using all-thread rods embedded in epoxy -- it takes some creative
> detailing
> and careful workmanship to develop epoxy keys into the cells --
> but they give
> good test results.  Also look into using the Cintek Anchor System
> (613-225-3381) (they are Canadian folks) -- I've come across this since my
> last hollow clay tile project, and it looks very
> good......................
> Also, check out Covert Operations anchors (562) 498-7426 that
> have worked pretty good with hollow clay tile.  They are also
> often willing to do the site specific testing of their anchoring
> system for you.
> Regards,
> Sasha Itsekson, PE