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RE: Non-Building seimic analysis

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The 80% is not a constant for all dry materials.  It varies greatly depending on the material.  Dry materials behave very differently in a hopper.  Consider grain and hoop stresses in a hopper.  More than a few hoppers have ruptured due to excessive hoop stresses.

Rw is 4 whether braced or unbraced.

Harold Sprague, PE
Krawinkler, Luth & Assoc.

-----Original Message-----
From:	Wood, Chris [SMTP:CWood(--nospam--at)]
Sent:	Thursday, September 10, 1998 2:50 PM
To:	seaint(--nospam--at)
Subject:	Non-Building seimic analysis

Does anyone know what "normal operating contents" is as far as dry storage
in a cylindrical hopper. I am dealing with an engineer that considers it to
80% of the material weight that the hopper can hold.
Also, what would Rw be if the hopper is supported on a concentrically braced
frames (WF columns and beams with angle bracing).

Chris Wood PE, SE