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Re: Non-Building seimic analysis

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Chris Wood wrote: 
>Does anyone know what "normal operating contents" is as far as dry storage
a cylindrical hopper.  I am dealing with an engineer that considers it to
of the material weight that the hopper can hold.  Also, what would Rw be if 
the hopper is supported on a concentrically braced frames (WF columns and 
beams with angle bracing). < 
I get the impression the other engineer may be using 80% as "normal
contents" based on an assumption that an earthquake is not likely to occur 
when the hopper is full, i.e. the hopper is not "normally" completely full.  
But I do not think this is the intent of "normal operating contents" - I
use the maximum contents that the hopper is intended to hold under normal 
operating conditions (e.g. ignore unusual conditions such as "overflow" 
conditions).  I would use the R-value as for bins and hoppers in the table
nonbuilding structures.  
Harold - perhaps you could shed some light on why "vessels" and "hoppers" on 
braced or unbraced legs have different R-values?  It seems that the
system is similar, although the vessel containing fluid would also involve