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RE: Structure Magazine Q: Ftg Settlem't.

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A simple criteria for Footing Settlement

 A. First Degree Structural Failure.

   Any settlement that is more than expected or engineered but causes no
apparent damage to
   the building or structure.

 B. 2nd Degree Structural Failure.

   Settlement that will damage non-structural parts of the building or

 C. 3rd Degree Structural Failure.

   Any settlement that will cause distress to the building or structure
resulting to the
   following :

   1. Cracks on structural members
   2. Deflection of structural members
   3. Collapse of structure

Alex C. Nacionales, C.E.
Iloilo City, Philippines

> -----Original Message-----
> From: Charles Greenlaw [mailto:cgreenlaw(--nospam--at)]
> Sent: Sunday, January 10, 1999 12:01 PM
> To: seaint(--nospam--at)
> Subject: Re: Structure Magazine Q: Ftg Settlem't.
> At 04:42 PM 1/9/99 -0700, you wrote:
> >What criteria should be followed in deciding if the settlement
> of a footing
> is structural
> >failure?  That is, how much settlement can occur before it should be
> considered a
> >structural failure?
> >
> >Sam Love
> >Love Engineering, Inc.
> >loveengr(--nospam--at)
> -------------------------------------------------------
> A Clintonian-style answer is what first comes to mind:
>         How do you define "considered"?
>         How do you define "structural" (as distinguished from
> "foundation")?
>         How do you define "failure"?
> Then comes the curiosity of how the settlement of the footing is measured:
>         With respect to the closest adjoining footings?
>         With respect to the footing that has settled the least?
>         With respect to some remote location that has not settled at all?
> And then comes the issue of who is doing the "considering":
>         Interested design professionals?
>         Interested construction professionals?
>         Owners who purport to be displeased with the settlement
> in question?
>         Expert witnesses for any of the above?
>         Insurance carriers for any of the interested parties?
>         A jury or judge?
> The answer will only emerge if the question is adjudicated to
> completion at
> trial, and it will only apply to that particular instance (but not to
> otherwise identical circumstances arising another time or place) and
> therefore is problematic as guidance to readers of Structure Magazine.
> The question does however serve to illustrate the complexities and
> uncertainties we are faced with in structural engineering practice.
> Charles O. Greenlaw  SE   Sacramento CA