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Bolting issues

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There has been a great deal of discussion on bolts lately. Some of the
statements made were right on track. Unfortunately, a great many
statements were, in my (humble) opinion, incorrect. For example, a few
messages indicated concerns about over-pretensioning and subsequent
failure in service (RCSC Specification states that pretension in excess
of the minimum required pretension is not cause for rejection). A few
others stated a preference for one installation method as being better
than the others (RCSC Specification Commentary states that four
pretensioning methods are recognized without preference and each will
provide an acceptable result if applied properly, i.e., without

I regret that I don't have the time to detail out the answers and/or
technical justification to all the questions that have been asked in the
bolt "thread". Ha! Pun intended! But you can all find the answers to
these and a whole lot of other questions on your own in two documents:

1. The RCSC Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490
Bolts (note: the 1994 LRFD version is the best one by far for technical

2. The Guide to Design Criteria for Bolted and Riveted Joints, 2nd
Edition, by G.L. Kulak, J.W. Fisher and J.H.A. Struik.

The first reference is THE recognized standard for design and
construction with bolted joints using A325 or A490 bolts. It's the basis
of the bolting provisions in the AISC Specification and AISC Seismic
Provisions. It has a Commentary that explains the basis of the
requirements contained in it. The second reference is the source
document that translates data from the research and investigation level
to the RCSC Specification level. In essence, it is the Commentary to the
Commentary to the RCSC Specification.

Hope this helps (and sorry for being a bit long-winded)