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Values of dowels in existing concrete

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hello all,

I'm curious about the use of dowels to connect existing concrete with new as
in the case existing to new foundation.  I am wondering about what type of
strength can the engineer assume or rather rely on.  Is there any theory
behind this?  

In most condition, one can use epoxy and rely on the testing data of
manufacturers for design, but suffer that wrath of complaints regarding
special inspection.  The alternative is to use other grouting material like
"rapid set."  

I have yet review the specs for "rapid set," but have seen engineers specify
them on plans. 
What type of values can engineers use?  
Has "rapid set" been reviewed by ICBO or other testing agencies?
Is there any special concern regarding this grout?  
If design relies on dowels to carry load from existing to new, how can one
design or justify through calculations for the use?  

Your comments are always greatly appreciated.  Thanks

Long T. Tang