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Stresses at Shell Attachments

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Analysis of stresses at attachment to a spherical or cylindrical tank is
generally based on formulas, charts and graphs found in Welding Research
Council bulletin WRC 107,  WRC-297 and Pressure Vessel Design by
Bednar.  Attachment comprise either a nozzle or a clip (with or without
reinforcing pad).  My question is specific to the clip design.  I am not
asking for recommendation for commercial software.

In general, the above mentioned references have relatively more
information on clips attached to cylindrical vessels. For example,
rectangular reinforcing pad can be designed for a cylindrical vessel but
not for a spherical vessel.  So, question no. 1 is: how should a
rectangular pad be treated for a spherical vessel?

In actual practice, I have seen many vessels with bare clips, i.e.,
without  reinforcing pads. The books referred to in para 1. do not
provide any guidance to analyze stresses around a bare clip.  Therefore,
question no. 2 is: Are there any formulas and charts available to handle
such scenarios?  Designs of this kind have existed even before the
advent of computers.  How was the design performed then?

Rajendran, P.E.