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Ice Force on Steel Water Storage Tanks

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A Question:

If the water in an open top steel storage tank were allowed to freeze, what
lateral force would the ice exert on the tank shell?  Is this a practical
condition to permit?  We're thinking of 10 to 15 foot diameter tanks located
in cold climates.

I've checked AWWA D100 and didn't see this possibility addressed.  The
dynamic ice pressures mentioned in the AASHTO code (for design of bridge
piers) are in the range of 100 to 400 psi.  Such pressure would exert huge
hoop stresses on a tank shell if a significant depth of water froze.
Perhaps when the water is free to expand vertically as it freezes, the
lateral pressures are much less.  Any comments would be appreciated.

Ed Marshall, P.E.
Atlanta