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Fw: Open top steel tanks

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FYI.

James Cohen
James Cohen Consulting, P.C.
PO Box 130
Pennington, NJ 08534
Tel: (609) 730-0510
Fax: (609) 730-0511
Website: http://expertpages.com/~jccpc
-----Original Message-----
From: Devinder S. Sodhi <dsodhi(--nospam--at)crrel.usace.army.mil>
To: JCohen <jccpc(--nospam--at)email.msn.com>; elmarshall(--nospam--at)HASimons.com <elmarshall(--nospam--at)HASimons.com>
Cc: Kathy Jones <kjones(--nospam--at)crrel.usace.army.mil>
Date: Thursday, March 11, 1999 8:59
Subject: Open top steel tanks

Dear Mr. Ed Marshall and Mr. James Cohen,

You enquiry was directed to me by Ms. Kathy Jones.

Let me state the problem again from the message below.

"If the water in an open top  steel storage tank were allowed to freeze,
what...?    Is this a practical?   We're thinking of 10 to 15 foot diameter
tanks located in cold  climates.  The dynamic ice pressures mentioned in the
AASHTO code (for  design of bridge....  Such  pressure would exert huge hoop
stresses on a tank shell if a significant  depth of water froze. Perhaps
when the water is free to expand vertically as  it freezes, the  Any
comments would be  appreciated."

You are correct in stating that AASHTO Code are not applicable for freezing
of ice in an open steel tank. As the freezing process proceeds, a layer of
ice will likely seal the water underneath by attaching itself to the wall,
assuming that there is no fluctuation of water level in the tank. Because
ice has less density than water, it occupies more volume than water. In
other words, the freezing process will generate pressure in the water, which
will try to push the ice up, forming a bulge in the middle. The pressure and
the bulge will depend on the severity of freezing and ice thickness.

After an ice cover has formed, development of hoop stresses will result from
thermal expansion of ice, which in turn will depend on fluctuations of
atmospheric temperature, presence of snow on the ice sheet, amount of heat
transfer into the ice sheet, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic
modulus of ice, and stress relaxation due to creep deformation of ice.
Though there is much work done on the thermally induced ice forces on
structures, I have not seen any published report on the problem described
above. One consultant in Montreal told me about failure of above-ground
swimming pools in Canada. From the pictures he sent me, I could see the
bulge and the cracks in the ice sheet. He was also looking for existing
results on this type of problems, which I do not have at this time.

Hope the above discussion will help you to focus on the problem at hand.

Devinder S. Sodhi
Senior Research Scientist
Ice Engineering Research Division
U. S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
72 Lyme Road
Hanover, N. H. 03755-1290

Tel: (603) 646-4267
Fax: (603) 646-4477
e-mail:  dsodhi(--nospam--at)crrel.usace.army.mil
____________________________________________________________
X-Sender: u2rs9kfj@mailserver
Date: Wed, 10 Mar 1999 19:02:50 -0500
To: dsodhi
From: Kathy Jones <kjones(--nospam--at)crrel.usace.army.mil>
Subject: Fw: Ice Force on Steel Water Storage Tanks
X-UIDL: 58903fb78c881b786a1c952c6225f4bb

Dev, can you help?
Kathy


>From: "JCohen" <jccpc(--nospam--at)email.msn.com>
>To: "Kathy Jones" <kjones(--nospam--at)crrel41.crrel.usace.army.mil>
>Subject: Fw: Ice Force on Steel Water Storage Tanks
>Date: Tue, 9 Mar 1999 17:35:54 -0500
>X-MSMail-Priority: Normal
>X-Mailer: Microsoft Outlook Express 4.72.3110.5
>X-MimeOLE: Produced By Microsoft MimeOLE V4.72.3110.3
>
>    Any ideas on this?    How are you doing? Haven't heard from you for a
>while.
>James Cohen
>James Cohen Consulting, P.C.
>PO  Box 130
>Pennington, NJ 08534
>Tel: (609) 730-0510
>Fax: (609)  730-0511
>Website: http://expertpages.com/~jccpc
> -----Original Message-----
>From:  <elmarshall(--nospam--at)HASimons.com>
>To:  'seaint(--nospam--at)seaint.org'<seaint(--nospam--at)seaint.org>
>Cc: <wthornton(--nospam--at)HASimons.com>
>Date:  Tuesday, March 09, 1999 17:32
>Subject: Ice Force on Steel Water  Storage Tanks
>
>A Question:
>
>If the water in an open top  steel storage tank were allowed to freeze, what
>  Is this a practical
>   We're thinking of 10 to 15 foot diameter tanks located
>in cold  climates.
>
>  The
>dynamic ice pressures mentioned in the AASHTO code (for  design of bridge
>  Such  pressure would exert huge
>hoop stresses on a tank shell if a significant  depth of water froze.
>Perhaps when the water is free to expand vertically as  it freezes, the
>  Any comments would be  appreciated.
>
>Ed Marshall, P.E.
>Atlanta
>
>
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