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RE: Holes for galvanized bolts

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Moment connection stiffness depends to some extent on the type of 
connectors used (i.e., bolts or welds) but more on the details in which 
they are used. Bolted flange plates and end plates are quite suitable for 
fully restrained (FR) moment connections. In the end, no connection detail 
provides for 100 percent fixity.

Generally speaking, bolted joints make the field work easier, which reduces 
cost. But that's not to say that field-welded joints cannot be used 
economically. Again, it all depends upon the details.

Yes, bolted connections are quite reliable when properly designed, 
including consideration of things like the net section and block shear 
rupture. But once you know the limit states that are applicable to the 
specific detail, the design of bolted connections is really no different 
than the design of welded connections.


-----Original Message-----
From:	Francis.Ang(--nospam--at) [SMTP:Francis.Ang(--nospam--at)]
Sent:	Thursday, April 15, 1999 7:07 PM
To:	seaint(--nospam--at)
Subject:	RE: Holes for galvanized bolts

I have read some of your remarks on bolted connections.
The question is why go for bolted ones when you can go for welding. Is it
the cost?
>From my point of view and experience, the bolted connections would provide 
partial restraint on the member. A 100% fixity could not really be provided
(only in conjunction with welding) . Whereas welded connections could
provide continuity and fixity. We use bolts only for erection purposes and
rely on welds for the full connection.

Does bolted ones produce economic structures? Is it really safe.?
We have specified welds for the buildings that we have designed.
There are more modes of failures for bolted connections than welded ones.
And based on the tests that I have read and observed, welded structures
failed on the members and not on the connections therefore hinging is more
likely to occur on the member rather than in the supports or at column

My statements do not necessarily apply to all structures. Just a comment /
Any counter opinion is most welcome. Let me hear your thoughts.

Thanks guys !

> ----------
> From: 	Moore, Danny[SMTP:drmoore(--nospam--at)]
> Reply To: 	seaint(--nospam--at)
> Sent: 	Thursday, April 15, 1999 9:17 PM
> To: 	seaint(--nospam--at)
> Subject: 	Re: Holes for galvanized bolts
> There is a response to this very question in the latest issue of "Modern
> Steel Construction", a monthly magazine from AISC, in the "Steel
> Interchange" section.
> Danny R. Moore, Jr.
> Civil/Structural Engineer
> S & B Engineers and Constructors
> Ph: 713-845-5330
> Email: drmoore(--nospam--at)