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Lateraly loaded piers [2nd attempt]

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For many, many years, it was assumed that piles could not take lateral 
loading, therefore, battered piles were installed to resist lateral loading 
--- and they did so with an outstanding record of performance.

When it was necessary to have a pile resist moment, such as in a bridge 
abutment, a point of fixity 6-feet below ground surface was assumed.

Then someone modeled the performance of piles using sub-strata "k-factors" 
that no one could possibly determine, nor could anyone confirm, and they 
developed computer programs to use the nebulous "k-factors" and come up with 
"exact" answers based on vague assumptions.

See if your "exact" programs don't give you a point of maximum moment about 
6-feet below ground surface.

A. Roger Turk, P.E.(Structural)
Tucson, Arizona

Luke Gunnewegh wrote:

. > Some feedback is greatly appreciated regarding laterally loaded piles.
. > In the model I use, the internal resisting moment is limited, and far 
. > less than the pile capacity.

. > Question: Where is the point of rotation, how to determine the capacity? 
. > Where are all the moments are relative to?

. > I have not found any clearly explaining literature regarding this problem.
. > Please help me with modeling this situation.