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Re: Plane impact design

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Many technical papers have been published on aircraft impact effects on
nuclear plant structures.  One reference which contains an overview of this
subject is:

No. 58, American Society of Civil Engineers, 1980.

Some papers that might be of some help in estimating the impact forcing

K. Drittler and P. Gruner, "Calculation of the Total Force Acting Upon a
Rigid Wall by Projectiles", Nuclear Engineering and Design, Vol. 37 (1976),
pp. 231-244.

L. Y. Bahar and J. S. Rice, "Simplified Derivation of the Reaction-Time
History in Aircraft Impact on a Nuclear Power Plant", Nuclear Engineering
and Design, Vol. 49 (1978), pp. 263-268.

There are several ways to approach the analysis problem, depending on what
you are trying to achieve.  If you are designing a new structure and the
goal is to prevent gross structural collapse, without concern about local
effects such as secondary missiles being generated (e.g., back face
scabbing of R/C walls) and you have an estimate of the impact force versus
time function available, then the methods in ASCE Manual 58 should be
sufficient.  However, if you are concerned about local effects on the
target such as spalling and penetration and you need to consider
deformation of the aircraft, then much more sophisticated analysis methods
will be needed.  

Finite element analyses (LS-DYNA, DYNA 3D, ADINA and ABAQUS) can been used
to predict nonlinear dynamic responses of the missile and target taking
into account a host of special effects.  However, the engineering effort
involved with this approach is huge and the reliability of the results has
a tendency to decreases as the sophistication increases.  What I mean by a
decrease in reliability is that the accuracy of very localized responses
(e.g., the depth of missile penetration, velocities and trajectories of
secondary missiles, ... etc.) is generally not as good as the accuracy of
the predicted global responses, which can be achieved using much simpler

Hope this helps.

Walt Sawruk
EQE International, Inc.
Shillington, PA

email: ws(--nospam--at)

At 10:55 PM 07-07-1999 -0300, you wrote:
>    Does anyone know of a good source on the analysis of a  structure to
>airplane impact loads?   Thanks in advance.    Rodrigo Lema.