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RE: Ice Expansion Force

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IMO, water will expand, when freezing, in the path of least resistance.
Given the opportunity to squeeze out the side of the base plate or lift 2000
pounds and elongate high strength bolts, the water/snow will likely squeeze
out the side.  How would water get into this space and stay there long
enough to freeze?
Otherwise, it becomes a mechanics of materials problem.  Force on bolts =
Force of expansion - Dead Load.  Calculate the expansion of the water.
Determine the Force required to elongate the bolts the same amount.  This
analysis works as long as the anchors do not exhibit a brittle failure mode
at low temperatures ... 
William J. Keil, P.E. 

-----Original Message-----
From: Daniel A. Estabrooks [mailto:dae(--nospam--at)]
Sent: Wednesday, March 01, 2000 11:41 AM
To: seaint(--nospam--at)
Subject: Ice Expansion Force

I would like some input on the following question:
I need to know the maximum uplift pressure which could be developed due to
ice forming under a steel base plate.
Steel column on levelling nuts, very stiff heavy base plate. No grout in
place. Water collects in 1" space between underside of base plate and
concrete foundation and freezes. Need to determine maximum possible force on
anchor bolts due to ice expansion. 
Daniel A. Estabrooks P.Eng.
Estabrooks Consultants Inc.
PO Box 2061
Saint John, NB
E2L 3T5