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Re: Ice Expansion Force

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When I took an Arctic Engineering course from the Army in the 1970's, they taught that ice expansion can produce pressures up to 39 ksi.  Use grout, caulk, or whatever it takes to keep the water out.
----- Original Message -----
Sent: Wednesday, March 01, 2000 8:40 AM
Subject: Ice Expansion Force

I would like some input on the following question:
 
I need to know the maximum uplift pressure which could be developed due to ice forming under a steel base plate.
 
i.e.:
 
Steel column on levelling nuts, very stiff heavy base plate. No grout in place. Water collects in 1" space between underside of base plate and concrete foundation and freezes. Need to determine maximum possible force on anchor bolts due to ice expansion.
 
regards,
Daniel A. Estabrooks P.Eng.
Estabrooks Consultants Inc.
PO Box 2061
Saint John, NB
E2L 3T5
Canada