From: "Mark D. Baker" <shake4bake(--nospam--at)earthlink.net>
Date: Wed, 10 May 2000 10:22:01 -0700
Why not just design the braces as tension members only and save yourself the
headache you are now facing for compression member design?
----- Original Message -----
From: Ron O. Hamburger <ROH(--nospam--at)eqe.com>
Sent: Wednesday, May 10, 2000 8:26 AM
Subject: Braced Frames - Hollow Strucural Sections
> It is possible to use large HSS in braces of braced frames. The
> h/t is for "unstiffened" elements of sections. This requirement was
> 1994 to prevent braces from experiencing premature local buckling and "oil
> canning." When this happens, very large strains occur at the yield lines
> local buckle and fracture initiates after a few cycles.
> It is possible (and laboratoy testing has demonstrated this) to fill the
> with a noncompressible material, such as cement grout, and use lower h/t
> The grout fill stiffens the tube so that the faces are no longer
> elements." This prevents the local buckling from occuring.
> Refer to the papers by Hassan and Goel, 1991 and Goel and Tang, 1989 upon
> this code provision is based.