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RE: Grade @ Anchor Bolts

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Title: RE: Grade @ Anchor Bolts

>>...headed or threaded/nutted embedments
>> can be fully developed with the head/nut only by selecting the proper
>> embedment (length).....adding a plate at
>> the bottom of the embedment introduced a plane of weakness in the concrete
>> that REDUCED the strength of the embedment!

>Can you (or someone else) please elaborate on this
>particular topic / mode of failure?

With a head or nut (but no plate) at the end of the embedment(s), the mode of failure on anchorage devices is a cone-type failure in the concrete, assuming that limit state is the controlling limit state. The intersection of cones often reduced the total strength of the embedment group, but you can still count on a cone-type failure.

With a plate at the bottom of the anchors, the mode of failure is likely to change from a lot of individual cones to one big chunk (technical term) with a flat bottom. If so, and since this has less surface area, it reduces the strength.