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Shotcrete on URM

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In my opinion, ignoring the contribution of the urm resistance to in-plane
demands is not correct. The shotcrete and the URM have stiffness and
demands should be proportioned accordingly. The shotcrete should be
designed so it carries enough demand to reduce the urm stresses at or below
the value obtained from the brick mortar testing program. I have used an E
for brick at around 100,000 psi to evaluate URM stiffness.

Michael Krakower SE