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Re: loader surcharge at top of retaining wall

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>Assuming elastic behavior, deflection is
>directly proportional to load, so the dynamic "load" is twice the static
>load; or another way to say it is that the impact factor is 2.
You can also think about this by noting that the suddenly applied load 
starts at rest, but picks up some kinetic energy as the beam deflects. 
The additional deformation (twice that of a slowly applied load) is 
actually an overshoot to absorb the kinetic energy acquired as the mass 
deflects the beam.

Christopher Wright P.E.    |"They couldn't hit an elephant from
chrisw(--nospam--at)        | this distance"   (last words of Gen.
___________________________| John Sedgwick, Spotsylvania 1864)