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Shear studs

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How do you inspect the welds with the ferrule in place?

A. Roger Turk, P.E.(Structural)
Tucson, Arizona

Bill Pulyer wrote:

>>Welded shear studs are a commonly used in composite construction.  During
installation ceramic ferrules are used for application and reamain after the
stud is placed.  Is it required that these ferrules need to be removed prior
to pouring the concrete?  What affect does the ferrule have on the
performance if left in place?<<