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Re: "Sloshing Effects"

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The references I have used for sloshing forces  include:
API Standard 650, Appendix E (1998)
TID 7024 Nuclear Reactors and Earthquakes, Chapter 6 (Newmark,1963)
There is also a New Zeland standard I have used that escapes me at the

----- Original Message -----
From: "Frank Griffin" <fsg(--nospam--at)>
To: <seaint(--nospam--at)>
Sent: Tuesday, January 30, 2001 5:59 PM
Subject: "Sloshing Effects"

> Can someone guide me to any reference materials pertaining to seismic
> effects of liquids in storage tanks?  UBC '97 makes mention of, "inertial
> effects of the contained fluid."  IBC 2000 (which is the code in effect
> my project) makes mention of, "sloshing period of the stored liquid," and
> states that, "The tank shall be designed to resist the effects of
> Furthermore, AWWA D100-96 states, "The design of ground-supported
> flat-bottom tanks recognizes the reduction in seismic load due to the
> sloshing of the contained liquid.  This design procedure is referred to as
> the effective mass method."  There are some references in the Appendix,
> nothing more recent than 1984.
> Thanks in advance for any help you can provide.
> Frank Griffin
> Ft. Worth, Texas