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bridge questions

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Any information on ; 
1. Determination of design forces for bridge foundations (for SPC B, C and
D)
    (We have the acceleration coefficient  A,  0.1<A<0.4 g in my country.
The column sections preferred by the state highway     
    assoc. are huge ( 2.0*1.0 meters or similar) . When minimum
reinforcement is applied to the section, i end up with very very big

    plastic moments. what moments should i use? if i use plastic values, do
i need to use a two way working foundation? does the                       
    column reach its plastic capacity for the two axis at the same time? )
  
2. Differences for the mathematical model of a curved (horizontal curve)
bridge and an aligned bridge
    (For the same curved bridge, when the angle of response spectrum is
changed, the local elastic seismic
    forces of the structural elements differ. The square root of sum of
squares remain the same but the local forces change.
    Do I have to try some angles to find the most critical elastic force for
the structural elements (columns ) or is there another    
    procedure which I don't know?)


will be highly appreciated.

Mete BAYKIR

YÜKSEL PROJE ULUSLARARASI A.S         
Birlik Mah. 9. Cadde No:41                           
Çankaya    06610                                         
ANKARA,TURKEY                                       
Tel: +90 312 4957000  (Ext.224)                          
Fax: +90 312 4957024                                
Email: mbaykir(--nospam--at)yukselproje.com.tr


-----Original Message-----
From: Dinmore, Gary [mailto:Dinmore(--nospam--at)pbworld.com]
Sent: Monday, April 02, 2001 3:14 PM
To: 'seaint(--nospam--at)seaint.org'
Subject: RE: disappointed engineer


Bridge engineering puts the Structural Engineer back in charge.  Try it, you
might like it.  

> -----Original Message-----
> From:	Tomás Matta [SMTP:tmatta(--nospam--at)puc.cl]
> Sent:	Thursday, March 01, 2001 10:19 PM
> To:	seaint
> Subject:	disappointed engineer
> 
> I graduated from college here in Chile about six months ago, and I've been
> working ever since in a small office designing mostly reinforced concrete
> buildings, and to tell you the truth, I find the job to be very
> disappointing.  The pay is definitely not as good as in other areas (like
> industrial engineering), and the job really gets to be boring sometimes.
> I mean, what difference will it make if you try to do a good job and try
> design economically for the client?  Will he notice? I think certainly
> not.  The thing is, at least here in Chile structural engineering really
> carries some status in college because it's considered to be one of the
> more difficult areas of engineering, and the smartest kids here in Chile
> prefer to study engineering rather that medicine or law, like in the
> States.  Now I don't regret having studied structural engineering, I liked
> studying it, but working, now that's a different story.  I don't want to
> spend the rest of my life taking orders from the big man in the project
> (architect), so I've already started to look for a job in another area.
> Does this happen to engineers in other countries?
>  
> just my 2 pesos worth,
>  
> Tomas Matta
> Ingeniero Civil, PUC
> Santiago, Chile