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RE: Re[2]: Seismic Earth Pressures on Cantilever Retaining Walls

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Whenever you do have time for a full response, I am looking forward to it.
I do have a seawall condition by the way.

-----Original Message-----
From: TBenson(--nospam--at)lowney.com [mailto:TBenson(--nospam--at)lowney.com]
Sent: Monday, October 29, 2001 7:02 PM
To: seaint(--nospam--at)seaint.org
Subject: Re[2]: Seismic Earth Pressures on Cantilever Retaining Walls


Nick,

This is one of my favorite topics, but I don't have time tonight to give you
the
full response (half a response would be counter-productive).  Perhaps
tomorrow.
I will say, to date myself, extrapolating from Newmark, Seed and Makdisi's
work
for embankments, Richards and Elms (1979  ASCE Journal GT4, 105) have gone
beyond calculating pressures/forces to tackle "limited displacements."  But,
let
me ask the list a few questions first:

(1)  Other than quay walls, sea walls, berths, etc., can anyone point to
some
significant retaining wall failures due to earthquakes, where liquefaction
and/or lateral spreading were not a factor?  What type of wall was it (e.g.
cantilever reinforced concrete, Keystone with geogrids, etc.), what was the
backslope, and what were the earth materials retained?  I look through the
EERI
"Lessons Learned" series and find very little on earth retaining walls other
than at ports and waterways.

(2)  Mononobe-Okabe does not provide you with strain or deformation
information.
 This is a soil-structure interaction problem.  What would be the allowable
deflection or strain in a stem of a conventionally reinforced concrete
retaining
wall during an earthquake?  Elastic deformation vs. yielded permanent
deformation?

I don't want to "forget about it", but case histories usually focus our
attention.  JAFGE's opinion.

Tom Benson at Lowney Associates
251 East Imperial Highway, Suite 470
Fullerton, CA 92835-1063
(714) 441-3090
FAX: (714) 441-3091
see: www.lowney.com
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
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____________________Reply Separator____________________
Subject:    Re: Seismic Earth Pressures on Cantilever Retaining Walls
Author: seaint(--nospam--at)seaint.org
Date:       10/29/01 3:40 PM

I ask this question to geotechnical engineers all the
time. Their response seems: "forget about it". Any
geotechnical engineer here?

--- Nick Arenson <narenson(--nospam--at)olymandalay.com> wrote:
> What is the state of the practice regarding seismic
> pressures on cantilever
> retaining walls?  Mononobe-Okobe (1926) developed a
> method and it has been
> extended through the years.
>
> We've all realized that peak ground accelerations
> can be significant in near
> fault areas.  The formulation of M-O sort of falls
> apart at high
> accelerations because (it appears to me at least)
> the underlying assumptions
> can not deal with high accelerations (there is
> actually a combination of
> effects such as slope of backfill, friction angle,
> etc.,  that make the
> formulation break down).
>
> The Seed Whitman formulation (1970) seems to still
> apply (mainly because it
> is a vast simplification and the nasty formulation
> details go away).
>
> What are people using these days?
>
> Nick Arenson
>
>
>
>
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