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Re: Concrete Freezing

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One of the best references on this is the "Concrete Manual" by the U.S.
Dept. of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation.  Concrete that is allowed to
get below 40 degress in the first 72 hrs. is a problem. A wall may not be
much of a problem because the forms my protect it, except the top
surface.

I believe the thing to do is test the strength after say 28 days,
realizing that only about half of the 28 day strength will have been
achieved at that time and that after 60-90 days the design strength may
be achieved. If it isn't, then removal and replacement may be in order.

Stan Scholl, P.E. (ex PCA)
Laguna Beach, CA

On Tue, 4 Dec 2001 21:00:48 EST ADFPE(--nospam--at)aol.com writes:
> 
> In a message dated 12/4/01 3:16:33 PM, dang(--nospam--at)karren.com writes:
> 
> << Anybody know of any good references that address
> 
> the effects of freezing on concrete?  I've got a contractor
> 
> that placed a foundation wall, and didn't adequately protect
> 
> it from the cold weather.
> 
> 
> Dan Goodrich, P.E.
> 
>  >>
> 
> The issue is how much strength did the concrete have when it froze.  
> Fully 
> cured concrete can easily sustain temperatures well below freezing.  
> Concrete 
> is exothermic, so generates enough heat, when freshly placed, to 
> prevent 
> freezing at temperatures close to 32° F.  I believe that ACI 301 
> gives 
> guidance on this issue.  I have also heard about research that the 
> Army Corps 
> of Engineers Cold Regions Lab in Hanover, NH is doing that indicates 
> that 
> concrete that cures at low temperatures (near freezing) actually 
> develops 
> better long term properties than concrete cured at higher 
> temperatures 80° F. 
>  
> 
> Regardless of the above, if it froze before it achieved adequate 
> initial 
> strength, it may  be just so much mush.
> 
> Alan Fisher, PE
> 
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