# RE: Stopping That Truck !!

• To: seaint(--nospam--at)seaint.org
• Subject: RE: Stopping That Truck !!
• From: "syed faiz ahmad" <syedfaiz23(--nospam--at)hotmail.com>
• Date: Wed, 23 Jan 2002 22:13:02 +0300
```Nicholas,

Can you scan forward the subject article from Concrete International that
you mentioned? It should be an useful material for all of us, I believe.

Regards,

SENIOR STRUCTURAL ENGINEER
SAUDI OGER LTD

```
```From: "Nicholas Blackburn" <nblackburn(--nospam--at)fdgoak.com>
To: <seaint(--nospam--at)seaint.org>
Subject: RE: Stopping That Truck !!
Date: Wed, 23 Jan 2002 07:58:09 -0800

copied here is a message regarding a similar subject from some months ago
on
the list (from Mitchell J. Sklar, P.E.):

Back in 1996, I was investigating some damaged steel columns due to a
front end loader 'accidentally knocking into them' over and over again.
The columns were in a trash plant tipping hall and we were checking the
maximum plastic moment to deform some was

Momentum Conservation Method; Kinetic Energy of a Target-Missile
Combination; Force-Time Function Known:

For Automobile Fmax = 0.625 Vs Wm
where
F = force at interface (lb)
Vs = automobile velocity ft/sec
Wm weight of automobile (lbs)

Example 1:
WEIGHT = 8000 LBS
1.0 mph  (1.467 fps) Imp F = 0.625*Vs*Wm =	7883	lbs
1ST GEAR 4.3 MPH	(6.31  fps)
31533	lbs
2ND GEAR 8.2 MPH	(12.03 fps)
60133	lbs

Example 2 w/ KOMATSU WA450-2 weight 47840#, Vs 1.47, Fmax 43953#

I also have an article regarding the design of cable barrier rails from the
May 1989 Concrete International which may be of some use.

Nicholas Blackburn, PE
mailto:nblackburn(--nospam--at)fdgoak.com

-----Original Message-----
From: Caldwell, Stan [mailto:scaldwell(--nospam--at)halff.com]
Sent: Wednesday, January 23, 2002 7:33 AM
To: 'SEAINT Listserv'
Subject: Stopping That Truck !!

Greetings, y'all:

Every now and then, and interesting problem comes along that is challenging
in its simplicity.  It is even more interesting if that problem is entirely
outside the realm of all common building and bridge codes and guidelines.
Structural engineers simply are ill-prepared to tackle problems which
involve moving objects, momentum, kinetic energy, potential energy, force
due to deceleration, and acceptable structural failure.  We are struggling
with just such a problem right now:

A client in the defense industry wants to construct a security fence around
the perimeter of their industrial campus.  The fence is to be comprised of
bollards nominally spaced at 12 ft., connected with a continuous wire rope.
Each bollard will be comprised of a 12" X 12" concrete post over a 18" dia.
concrete pier.  The posts will extend about 3 ft. above grade, and the
piers
will extend 6 ft. to 8 ft. into black clay.  Reinforcement will be
continuous between the piers and posts, either with #8 rebars or with small
rolled shapes.  The 1" dia. wire rope will pass through the bollards about
30" above grade, and will sag about 2" between bollards.  The client has
specified that the fence must stop a 7500 lb. truck with a C.G. at 3 ft.
above grade, traveling at a speed of 20 mph or less.

Question:  What is the design force on the bollard?  on the wire rope?

Six normally intelligent structural engineers have calculated answers
ranging form 3 Kips to 980 Kips, with the majority thinking somewhere
between 50 and 100 Kips.  What do you think?

1]    The softest, and least known, spring is the soil ... and it's
stiffness changes seasonally.

2]    The next softest, and ill-defined, spring is the truck bumper and
chassis.

3]    The bollard can "fail" into a full plastic hinge (or beyond), just as
long as it stops the truck.

4]    The two most important variables are time and distance, which, of
course, are both indeterminant.

Who out there can think "outside the box" and solve this problem?

Stan R. Caldwell, P.E.
Dallas, Texas

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SENIOR STRUCTURAL ENGINEER
SAUDI OGER LTD

_________________________________________________________________

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