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Anchor Bolt Splice

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Fellow Engineers:
I've got some critical anchor bolts that have been set short in the field.
They are 1 1/4" dia. A449 in tension only.  I'm searching for a fix.  Here
are my questions:

1.  How much thread should be showing above the nut to achieve full design
capacity?
2.  Is there a documented relationship between the number (or length) of
threads actually engaged and the design strength of the bolt/nut interface?
(i.e. a reduction curve when the bolt is shorter than required)
3.  I'm thinking I'll have to weld an extension to the existing bolt.  Is
there a prequalified full pen weld for two equal diameter rods?
4.  Will I need to preheat the base material?
5.  Will I need to specify special electrodes for the operation?

Your help in this matter would be greatly appreciated.  Thank you in
advance.

Andrew Randolph, PE

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