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Re: Shear Stud Tensile Strength

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		ACI-318-02 Appendix D, Anchoring to Concrete is the most
recent comprehensive document on stud strength in concrete. Equation D-3,
which is simple, gives the strength of the steel. The next section gives the
strength of the concrete which has all sorts of factors and conditions.
		There are claims that Appendix D is too conservative because
it is based on mostly post-installed bolt tests and few cast-in stud tests,
so more research is being done. But I understand that the 45 degree shear
cone and the group action of a number of studs with intersecting shear cones
was based on even less research.
		All that notwithstanding, I design with the modified shear
cone model in the PCI Handbook 5th Edition and confinement. If studs are
near a concrete edge, it is prudent either to weld a tail bar onto the plate
that extends away from the edge or provide some other reinforcing that will
cross a crack from the edge to the most distant studs of the plate. However,
some of the researchers dismiss that latter because the concrete has
cracked, so it has failed. No amount of pointing out that this is the basis
of reinforced concrete design budges them from this position, so I keep it
in mind.
	James L. Getaz, III
	Winchester, Virginia

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