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RE: Openings in Existing Masonry

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Hello again Paul,  This is usually not cost effect for single family houses which is what I am refering to...However, there are  options.  If this is fairly recent construction, do you have the plans and do you know what is the existing reinforcement and can you take advantage of it?  Are you retaining soil too?  What loads do you have above?  My advice for enlarging existing openings is to go down not out or up.  But if this is a new opening cut the opening larger and work back into the required opening.  Use a steel beam header and post dowled into the sides.  But check the wall for compression under the post.  If you use a lintel, you can drill and epoxy in reinforcement. Check the rebar for shear.  Good luck   Take care,  Martin 

[Schwan, Martin K.] 
 -----Original Message-----
From: George Richards P.E. [mailto:george(--nospam--at)]
Sent: Tuesday, November 19, 2002 9:26 AM
To: 'seaint(--nospam--at)'
Subject: RE: Openings in Existing Masonry

I do not.  The stuff has dried and shrank already so why do I need shrinkage steel?
George Richards, P. E.
-----Original Message-----
From: Paul Feather [mailto:pfeather(--nospam--at)]
Sent: Tuesday, November 19, 2002 7:43 AM
To: seaint(--nospam--at)
Subject: Re: Openings in Existing Masonry

How do you comply with this for existing masonry? 
----- Original Message -----
Sent: Monday, November 18, 2002 3:51 PM
Subject: RE: Openings in Existing Masonry

Paul,  I hope this helps...Recently, we have had several requests to enlarged openings in concrete walls (mainly to meet the egress requirement) in residential one and two family dwellings.  I believe we require two # 5's around all window and door openings, extending beyond the corners at least 24".  Reference 1994 UBC 1914.3.7         This is seismic zone 4.  I'm curious to read what other parts of the country do...  Martin 
-----Original Message-----
From: Paul Feather [mailto:pfeather(--nospam--at)]
Sent: Monday, November 18, 2002 11:22 AM
To: SEAOC List
Subject: Openings in Existing Masonry

What is the consensus regarding reinforcing around an opening cut into an existing concrete masonry wall?  (fairly new construction, not URM)  I am considering small openings less than four feet.
The code requirement for steel around the opening extending beyond is empirical, and is for all four sides.  I have seen angles top and bottom with one leg cut away extending beyond the opening both with and without a vertical member each side as well as inset frames without extension beyond the opening.
Any input regarding current practice, or alternate methods?