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RE: masonry infill in concrete frame

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Let me just say this about lateral load modeling of infill
walls.......plan on spending some time & effort (and make sure you get
adquately compensated).  You have your choice between macro models
(equivalent strut) or micro models (finite element).  Each with either
particular limitations or obvious complexities.  Here are some
references for you:

"Analytical Modelling of Infilled Frame Structures - A General Review",
Crisafulli, Carr & Park, Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for
Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 1, March 2000

"Modeling of Masonry Infill Panels for Structural Analysis", Madan,
Reinhorn, Mander, Valles. Journal of Structural Engineering, October

"Seismic Design and Anaylsis of Masonry-Infilled Frames", Kodur, Erki
and Quenneville. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 22:576-587

Chapter 7, FEMA 356, Seismic Rehabilitation Prestandard, November 2000.

Hope this stuff helps...and good luck....

Robert C. Rogers, PE

-----Original Message-----
From: Dave Evans [mailto:DEvans(--nospam--at)] 
Sent: Friday, June 27, 2003 2:23 PM
To: seaint(--nospam--at)
Subject: masonry infill in concrete frame

In brief: I have FEMA 306, 307, & 308 and am looking for other good 
(more recent?) references on the in-plane lateral load modeling and 
behaviour of lightly-reinforced masonry infill walls with openings in 
concrete frame/shearwall buildings.  I would appreciate any war-stories 
about analyzing and rehabilitating infill, as well.

More detail:  We're about to embark on an evaluation of a 40-year-old 
existing building with concrete beams, concrete columns, and a few 
concrete shear walls (walls that look calcs done yet).  

A considerable number of bays have lightly-reinforced concrete masonry 
infill walls extending vertically from floor to beam soffit, and
from column to column (the walls are detailed to be mortared against 
the columns...there's no gap...unless from CMU shrinkage...haven't 
visited site yet).  Many of the infill walls have a door opening (some
several).  These infill walls will share the lateral load with the
shear walls in proportion to stiffness; initial stiffness of the infill
is likely 
to be on the same order as the concrete shear walls...maybe higher.

Dave Evans, P.E.
TNH, Inc.

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