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seismic design of stairs

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Can anyone give me some guidance for seismic design of stairs per the IBC2000?  The typical stairs are standard concrete filled pan stairs with MC or plate stringers.
Some questions I have include:
1. How do I calculate the seismic forces? SFSR type? R factor?
2. Can the stair pans be assumed to act as a diaphragm to resist lateral loads?
3. Are there any special requirements for support attachments to the main structure?
4. Are there any design references or guidelines published (NAAMM does not seem to have any)?
Any help would be appreciated!
William Pulyer PE
Charlotte, NC