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RE: Connections

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Since shop drawings are instructions to the shop, and have *no* engineering 
involved in them at all, they do not need to be and should not be sealed.  
Shop drawings are *not* design or engineering drawings.

Engineering calculations and engineering drawings, whether performed by the 
project's structural engineer or delegated to a fabricator, and involve 
determining what is necessary to resist loads and forces, are required to be 
sealed.  If the "intent" of the working drawings is to have the fabricator 
design some aspect of the product, then the engineering calculations and 
the engineering drawings reflecting that design need to be sealed by the 
person responsible for the design.  Shop drawings are then prepared from the 
engineering drawings, so that the shop can cut, drill, assemble, weld, etc., 
the product in the shop for transportation to the jobsite and erected in 
accordance with erection drawings.  Erection drawings that just show where 
the pieces that come out of the shop are placed do not need to be sealed 
unless they involve engineering.  Erection drawings remove all the clutter 
that normally is on working drawings and shows just the product to be erected.

I refer you to AISC's "Detailing for Steel Construction" for examples of the 
differences between engineering drawings, erection drawings, and shop 

Do not confuse bidding/construction documents with engineering drawings 
prepared by the fabricator.  Do not confuse shop drawings with any other 
drawing prepared by either the fabricator or the project structural engineer.

I think that a lot of fabricators rely on most architects and engineers not 
knowing what the difference is between shop, erection and engineering 
drawings and submit only erection or engineering drawings instead of shop 

A. Roger Turk, P.E.(Structural)
Tucson, Arizona

Scott Haan wrote:

. > I was calling engineering drawings = plans.  I agree.  My point was the
. > engineer is responsible for design intent on the engineering drawings
. > and if connections are not on engineering drawings then who is
. > responsible for design intent for connections if the state does not
. > require the detailer to have an engineering license. 

. > Alaska state law exempts specialty contractors preparing "shop drawings"
. > from the practice of engineering.  This would appear to mean that
. > connections do not need to be engineered, if the engineer chooses not to
. > show connections on the plans.  My belief would be that the intent of
. > the state law is for connections to be engineered by someone.  

. > Do other states exempt people preparing shop drawings from the practice
. > of engineering? If exempted and the local practice is for is for the
. > engineer of record to not design connections, who is engineering the
. > connections?

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