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Fw: R for Piling Design

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I am not sure if this message was sent before. I so, my apologies.
I will appreciate some enlightment on the subject posed below :
We are aware that when considering the seismic loading over
piles, a very low R coefficient should be used ( response modification
coefficient ). I understand that the main reasons underlying this
provision, is the fact that piles, just to say, are 'not easy to repair '.
It seems ASSHTO sets R = 1, for this purpose, I have not seen nothing
about in CALTRANS specs.
It is to be noted that, in spite of this, these codes are specifying the heavy
reinforcement provided for allowing post-yielding behaviour. Is this, that
much required, even using R = 1 ?
Since I have not seen a clear statement in NEHRP, I understand that
for piles in buildings, we should use the same criteria. This means that
for the design of the piles themselves we should consider seismic forces
from the building amplified by R. OK ?
Best Regards,
Raul Labbé S.E.