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Masonry arching action

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What are some guidelines for considering masonry arching over an opening? I am looking at some loadbearing walls with standard doors, small windows, and a double door in it.  How far can masonry arch? Does the spacing of the bar joist affect the width of arching action? Do you need a lintel to span over closely spaced standard doors? There is 4' of 8" CMU overtop of the doors and windows. I am wondering how far the masonry can arch before it I have to start designing my lintels for the weight of the floor or roof.
 
 
 
 
Wesley C. Werner