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Transfer of Load from Column to Footing?

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For columns, ACI requires 1%xAg of the concrete column for vertical reinforcement.  Then there's the minimum 1/2%xAg for dowel reinforcement between the column/footing interface.  The compression development length of this 1/2%xAg sometimes controls the footing thickness.  My questions are as follows:

1. Does this apply to short piers where you have a steel column on a 36" or less pier?  I often have piers that are around 24" tall to get the bottom of the footing below the frost line.  This height does not allow proper compression development length for the dowel bars into the pier, let alone a compression splice lenghth.

2. Where Moments are induced into the footing, I embed and size the anchor rods to develop the tensile forces applied to the anchor rods.  In a short pier, if 1%xAg is used for the vertical reinforcement, the pier's height can not adequately provide a development length in tension for the vertical reinforcement.  Can I embed every vertical bar into the footing with a standard hook and make sure the hook is developed in tension?  I realize this is pain to build but with a short pier, what are the options?  

3. The is the allowable reduction factor of A-required/A-provided.  In most cases, the minimum 1%xAg requirement is much larger than what is required by design.  Can I count on this?

Thanks.
--Daniel E. Boltz, P.E. 




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