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Seismic Design

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For showing what structural engineers do, and how to identify differences,
it may be helpful to show the research behind it.

There is a lot of research that goes into seismic design that is very different
than static force design.  And in this research one can find the significance
of the moment connections.  The research can involve full scale models such
as at the UCSD Shake Laboratories and some in Japan, that are the largest
in the world.  There are mainly two kinds of shake labs that I can mention,
those are the strong walls, and the large shake tables.  These are used to
simulate the earthquake, with actuators inducing loads to the model structures.

These models can also be attributed to bridge design, and one can see bridge
retrofits all over California, these come as wraps around columns, nowadays using
more and more composite materials.

Another significant find, is that in seismic regions, you will never find buildngs as
tall as in non-seismic regions.  The only buidings that approach such heights
will be fully braced, sometimes with large external braces that wrap around the
building ( this is according to architecture as well ).  And as mentioned, these
taller buildings like in Japan, sometimes may even have an interior balancing core
to counteract the weight of the seismic event. A building like Malaysia's Kuala Lumpur,
I do not believe would be in a highly seismic region, but then perhaps I am very wrong.
These are aspects that would be nice to have more international answers.
But I am really thinking that in the states, the tallest buildings will not be found
in LA or San Francisco, although, yes, some are tall.

In Mexico City, you have another seismic dynamic, and that is that the City was built
on a lake, thus the soil is very prone to liquefaction or settlment, or just shifting.
To top it off, in Mexico City, you also have a High Seismic region, complete with live
volcanoes (which haven't gone off in awhile).

Perhaps I have strayed from the topic, but there are many different examples around
the world that can also be seen.

Por Favor, mas ejemplos internacionales.
Please, more international examples.

Refugio Rochin