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RE: holdowns in stem walls

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I have seen people say the popout cone goes through horizontal reinforcement and use the shear friction formulas to calculate resistance.
I have also seen people embed the anchors deep enough so that vertical steel is developed above popout cone and count on the vertical reinforcement for resistance. 
ACI 318 appendix D formulas are for unreinforced concrete - somebody has borrowed our office code books or I would refer code sections.

From: Truitt Vance [mailto:Truitt(--nospam--at)]
Sent: Friday, July 28, 2006 2:08 PM
To: seaint(--nospam--at)
Subject: holdowns in stem walls



Anyone know of a procedure to calc a holdown (say 15+ kips) in a concrete stem wall, such as a retaining wall?


Is there validity to using the regular rebar lap splice eqn to develop the stress from the all thread rod to vertical rebar embedded into the larger foundation below?


Without using that procedure, can you count on shear from dowel action of horizontal bar, if so, how do you calculate that?  I have seen some empirical data but I haven’t seen a way to calculate this.  Also, other requirements such as ties, similar to small stirrups – a good idea?