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RE: Reliability redundancy factor

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I believe you apply rho to the direction of force.  The intent is to amplify forces because you are relying on a minimal number of LFR elements. 


David A. Topete, SE

Structural Engineer


GFDS Engineers

543 Howard St., First Floor

San Francisco, CA 94105

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From: erik gibbs [mailto:erik.gibbs(--nospam--at)]
Sent: Thursday, January 11, 2007 1:12 PM
To: seaint(--nospam--at)
Subject: Reliability redundancy factor


Question about the reliability redundancy factor for shearwalls along one axis:


For example, if rho = 1.2 for 1 SW in 1 direction, do you have to apply the same factor to all the SW's in that direction even if they are at different locations, unless rho is greater along another location?


Or does rho only apply to the SW's along that SW line, but not all other SW's in that direction?


I think this is clear.


Erik G