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Re: Tilt-Panel Bottom Connections

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You might want to contact Hugh Brooks, SE ( hbrooks(--nospam--at) ). He wrote the book on tilt-up design (he also wrote the Retainpro retaining wall program) which he has now passed on to the Tilt-up Concrete Association. The Association website has various references available but with Hugh's experience, he might point you in the right direction more quickly as to where you should look.
Bill Cain, SE
Berkeley CA
-----Original Message-----
From: jake.watson1(--nospam--at)
To: seaint(--nospam--at)
Sent: Mon, 19 Feb 2007 7:13 PM
Subject: Re: Tilt-Panel Bottom Connections

It's amazing, this basic building type has been used for more than 40 years and we can't agree on  the first detail to get out of the ground.  Engineering really is more an art than science.

As for the bottom out-of-plane force, I think we are left to our own devises.  16.6.1 could be used to mandate a connection.  Although, I can easily see how soil could be considered a "different material" per  Not saying I agree with the interpretation, just reading the code.

Thanks for all the comments,

Jake Watson, S.E.
Salt Lake City, UT

On 2/19/07, Richard L. Hess < RLHess(--nospam--at)> wrote:
Mark, deals with vertical ties all right but not out of plane forces such as those caused by seismic events which was the subject of my 10:15 AM mail.  Do you know of anyplace where that is covered?
Richard Hess, S.E.
Los Angeles, CA
-----Original Message-----
From: Mark Remmetter [mailto:MarkR(--nospam--at)]
Sent: Monday, February 19, 2007 11:15 AM
To: seaint(--nospam--at)
Subject: RE: Tilt-Panel Bottom Connections

ACI addresses this issue in section (b)...Provide a minimum of two ties per panel with a nominal tensile strength of not less than 10,000 pounds per tie.  ACI (c) goes on to say that this tie is permitted to be anchored into an appropriately reinforced concrete floor slab on grade when design forces result in no tension at the panel base. 
When there is no tension at the panel base, the ties onto the floor slab can be used to transfer in-plane shear forces from the panel into the slab on grade. 
TCA supports the ACI code regarding the panel base connection, in fact several TCA members were instrumental in getting this provision added to the ACI code.
Mark E. Remmetter, P.E.
Vice President, Engineering
Steinbicker & Associates, Inc.

From: Jake Watson [mailto:jake.watson1(--nospam--at)]
Sent: Monday, February 19, 2007 12:09 PM
Subject: Tilt-Panel Bottom Connections

Our local SEA is looking at tilt-panel to foundation / slab connections and code requirements.  Because of this I have spent a fair amount of time researching the recent code history (97 UBC +).  Each code cycle has changed the wording and methodology.  FEMA 368 & 450 also take different approaches.  Because of this, I have assumed there must be a historic precedent of panel failures.  Two days of online research hasn't turned up a single report addressing the issue.  I can't seem to find a single reference which discusses panel performance at the bottom (good or bad).  Numerous papers, articles, and reports discuss diaphragm and out-of-plane anchorage.  But I couldn't find a single report dealing with the bottom.  That said, I am at home and haven't gone through recent ACI or TCA publications.

Can anyone point me to a reference which reviews the performance of panel bottom connections?

Jake Watson, S.E.
Salt Lake City, UT

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