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Two questions:



Is a basement wall to be treated as a flexure member with the minimum steel taken from ACI 318-05 Section 10.5.1, or is it to be treated as a wall with minimum steel taken from 318-05 Section 14.3.2 and 14.3.3?




For a 3’-0” spread footing, with say #4 bars for reinforcing, an 8” column,  the development of a #4 bar is approxamently 16”.    Taking the length a 3’-0” footing provides:


((36”-8”)/2)-2”(cover)=12”                   16” is greater than the 12” so the development is to small and a hook or bend should be provided.


However, I have seldom seen hooks provided in small spot footings, is there an exception to the lap length for footings?