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Design of Double Angle Shear Connection for Extreme Ductility

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Dear Mr. Felker:

I suggest the following references for information on ductility of bolted double angles subjected to rotation and rotation combined with tension pull out.

1. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V2Y-44B22K9-G&_user=4420&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000059607&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4420&md5=b5184e643b1f484cb7a039adf6635acb#bbib1> A. Astaneh, M. Nader and L. Malik, Cyclic behavior of double angle connections. /J. Struct. Engng/ *115* 5 (1989), pp. 1101–1118.

2. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V2Y-44B22K9-G&_user=4420&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000059607&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4420&md5=b5184e643b1f484cb7a039adf6635acb#bbib2> M. De Stefano, A. de Luca and A. Astaneh, Modeling of cyclic moment–rotation response of double-angle connections. /J. Struct. Engng/ *120* 1 (1994), pp. 212–229. ** <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=RedirectURL&_method=outwardLink&_partnerName=3&_targetURL=http%3A%2F%2Fdx.doi.org%2F10.1061%2F%28ASCE%290733-9445%281994%29120%3A1%28212%29&_acct=C000059607&_version=1&_userid=4420&md5=d7a8879d3515a56a3ef15bcd278cabbf> 3. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V2Y-44B22K9-G&_user=4420&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000059607&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4420&md5=b5184e643b1f484cb7a039adf6635acb#bbib3> A. Astaneh and I. Ho, Behavior and design of angle connections subjected to cyclic axial force and shear. In: A.H-S. Ang and R. Villaverde, Editors, /Structural engineering in natural hazards mitigation, vol. 2/, ASCE, New York (1993), pp. 1232–1237.

4. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V2Y-44B22K9-G&_user=4420&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000059607&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4420&md5=b5184e643b1f484cb7a039adf6635acb#bbib4> Azizinamini A, Bradburn JH, Radziminski JB. Initial stiffness of semi-ridig steel beam-to-column connections. J Construct Steel Res 1987;71–90.

5. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V2Y-44B22K9-G&_user=4420&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000059607&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4420&md5=b5184e643b1f484cb7a039adf6635acb#bbib5> S. Guravich and J.L. Dawe, Bolted double angle connections in combined shear and tension. In: /Proceedings of the AISC National Steel Construction Congress/, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago (1998) [8/1-8/15].

6. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V2Y-44B22K9-G&_user=4420&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000059607&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4420&md5=b5184e643b1f484cb7a039adf6635acb#bbib6> S. Guravich and J.L. Dawe, Simple beam connections in combined shear and tension. /J. Construct. Steel Res./ *46* (1998), pp. 241–242.

7. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V2Y-44B22K9-G&_user=4420&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000059607&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4420&md5=b5184e643b1f484cb7a039adf6635acb#bbib7> C.W. Lewitt, E. Chesson, Jr. and W.H. Munse. /Restraint characteristics of flexible and bolted beam-to-column connections. Bulletin Number 500/, Engineering Experiment Station, University of Illinois (1969).

8. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V2Y-44B22K9-G&_user=4420&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000059607&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4420&md5=b5184e643b1f484cb7a039adf6635acb#bbib7> K. Hong, J.G. Yang and S.K. Lee. /Moment-rotation behavior of double angle connections subjected to shear load. /J. Engineering Structures, Elsevier Science Ltd., (2002).

9. J. Shen, and A. Astaneh-Asl, A. / "Hysteresis Model of Bolted Angle Connections"/, J. of Steel Constructional Research, 54, (1999), pp. 317-343.

In number 1-3 and 9 we have reported on test results of double angles subjected to cyclic rotation as well as rotation plus axial push pull.

Based on what we know of the behavior, the bolted/bolted double angles where the angles are bolted to the beam as well as to the column (or girders) have quite large ductility , in the order of 0.10-0.15 radians rotation , provided that failure mode of the bolts in tension or shear do not govern. Also net section failure of the angle should not be governing failure mode. The governing failure mode has to be the angle leg yielding followed by bearing failure of bolts in sher. The edge distance of bolts on the back to back legs also needs to be greater than what is in the AISC spec ( about 1.5x dia) . We have suggested edge distance for these cases of catenary force applications be at least 2 x dia of bolt. If the angles are welded to the column, the ductility would be much less than bolted/bolted ones and not as reliable either.

Other sources that might be of some help (I hope, since they are my own Steel TIPS reports ) are:

1. Progressive Collapse Prevention of Steel Frames with Shear Connections <http://www.steeltips.org/steeltips/tip_details.php?id=97> 2. Notes on Design of Double-Angle and Tee Shear Connections for Gravity and Seismic Loads <http://www.steeltips.org/steeltips/tip_details.php?id=91>

These two reports have information on behavior and design of shear connections including double angles subjected to bending and axial tension.

If you have a specific concern or question, specially on our own work, please send me an e-mail off the list and I will be happy to help.

Best wishes
A. Astaneh-Asl, Ph.D., P.E.
Professor and Consultant on structural and Earthquake Engineering and Protection of Structures against Blast and Impact
(www.ce.berkeley.edu/~astaneh), (www.astaneh.net)

---------------
Subject: Design of Double Angle Shear Connection for Extreme Ductility
Date: Thu=2C 19 Feb 2009 21:10:43 -0500
From: bfelker(--nospam--at)mmmdesigngroup.com
To: seaint(--nospam--at)seaint.org

I am currently trying to design a double angle connection for ductile response
to catenary loads induced by support removal.  This is for a progressive
collapse avoidance design.  In order to achieve the assumed catenary structural
response assumed in the tie forces design method=2C the beam end connections
for structural steel members utilized as ties must be designed to undergo 0.20-radians of rotation=2C and still maintain the required capacity. I think I have figured out a way to do this=2C but would like to see if
any research has been done on this type of behavior=2C and/or if a text has
been written which addresses this issue.  Any direction would be much appreciated
as I'm not sure where to start looking.  Thanks.


Brian P. Felker, PE
Building Section Manager
Structural Department
MMM DESIGN GROUP
bfelker(--nospam--at)mmmdesigngroup.com
757.623.1641

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